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chemical equilibrium

Reversible processes [processes which may be made to proceed in the forward or reverse direction by the (infinitesimal) change of one variable], ultimately reach a point where the rates in both directions are identical, so that the system gives the appearance of having a static composition at which the Gibbs energy, G, is a minimum. At equilibrium the sum of the chemical potentials of the reactants equals that of the products, so that:
Δ G r = Δ G r o + R T ln K = 0
Δ G r o = − R T ln K
The equilibrium constant, K, is given by the mass-law effect.
Source:
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077 (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1114
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01023.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/C01023.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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