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dative bond

The coordination bond formed upon interaction between molecular species, one of which serves as a donor and the other as an acceptor of the electron pair to be shared in the complex formed, e.g, the N-->B bond in H3N-->BH3. In spite of the analogy of dative bonds with covalent bonds, in that both types imply sharing a common electron pair between two vicinal atoms, the former are distinguished by their significant polarity, lesser strength, and greater length. The distinctive feature of dative bonds is that their minimum-energy rupture in the gas phase or in inert solvent follows the heterolytic bond cleavage path.
Source:
PAC, 1999, 71, 1919 (Glossary of terms used in theoretical organic chemistry) on page 1933
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.D01523.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/D01523.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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