which enables optimal fermentation
conditions to be maintained, allowing addition of nutrients, removal of products and insertion
of measuring and/or control probes as well as other necessary equipment (e.g. for heating, cooling, aeration, agitation, sterilization, etc.) under sterile conditions.
PAC, 1992, 64, 143
(Glossary for chemists of terms used in biotechnology (IUPAC Recommendations 1992))
on page 154
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook