The Coulombic interaction of interfacial charges (e.g. ions) and the magnetic or electrostatic interaction of interfacial molecules lead to particularly complex interfacial structures. Complex interfacial profiles that can be approximated by two distinct sub-layers with different physical properties (e.g. structure and/or nature and/or composition), are referred to as interfacial double-layers. Examples of such approximated complex profiles are: the electrical double-layer consisting of a surface charge layer (i.e. a two dimensional distribution of one type of ions) and a diffuse charge layer (counter-ions
distributed over the space region next to the surface); the approximated profile of the orientation angle
of anisotropic liquid molecules within a 'double-layer
' consisting of a distribution of so-called anchored molecules which are perturbed (strongly bound and orientated) by the surface, and the adjacent, so-called, transition layer, i.e. the region where the surface perturbation is damped.
PAC, 1994, 66, 1667
(Thin films including layers: terminology in relation to their preparation and characterization (IUPAC Recommendations 1994))
on page 1674
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook