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Landau–Zener model

Within the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, a semi-classical model for the probability, P, of hopping from one electronic state to another of the same or different multiplicity
P = exp ( − 4 π 2 ɛ 1 2 2 h v | s 1 − s 2 | )
where ɛ 1 2 is the potential energy gap between the two electronic states at a surface crossing point, | s 1 − s 2 | is the difference in slopes between the intersecting potential energy curves at this point and v is the nuclear relative velocity with which the system passes the point of closest approach.
Note:
The original formalism only considered states of the same spin multiplicity.
Source:
PAC, 2007, 79, 293 (Glossary of terms used in photochemistry, 3rd edition (IUPAC Recommendations 2006)) on page 362
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.LT07409.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/LT07409.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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