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magnetic transition

A transition between disordered and ordered arrays of atomic magnetic moments. Where the ordered phase has a net spontaneous magnetization, M S, the magnetic-ordering temperature is called a Curie temperature, T C; where the net spontaneous magnetization of the ordered phase remains zero, the ordering temperature is called a Néel temperature, T N. The temperature at which the two ferromagnetic subarrays of a ferrimagnet just cancel each other is called the compensation point. Materials exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour when unpaired electron spins are aligned in parallel, antiferromagnetic behaviour when the alignment is antiparallel, and ferrimagnetic behaviour if the alignment of the spins is antiparallel with unequal numbers in the two orientations or if the spins are canted. Therefore, ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic and weak ferromagnetic transitions involve a net magnetic moment change, whereas antiferromagnetic transitions have zero net magnetic moment change.
Note:
Antiferromagnetic order below T N may be complex; for example, canting of spins as in GdFeO3 , spiral-spin configuration as may occur in MnO2 , and amplitude modulation, as in some rare-earth metals.
Source:
PAC, 1994, 66, 577 (Definitions of terms relating to phase transitions of the solid state (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 585
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Cite as:
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.M03690.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/M03690.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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