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polarizability

The ease of distortion of the electron cloud of a molecular entity by an electric field (such as that due to the proximity of a charged reagent). It is experimentally measured as the ratio of induced dipole moment (μ ind) to the field E which induces it:
α = μ ind E
The units of α are C 2 m 2 V −1. In ordinary usage the term refers to the 'mean polarizability', i.e., the average over three rectilinear axes of the molecule. Polarizabilities in different directions (e.g. along the bond in Cl2 , called 'longitudinal polarizability', and in the direction perpendicular to the bond, called 'transverse polarizability') can be distinguished, at least in principle. Polarizability along the bond joining a substituent to the rest of the molecule is seen in certain modern theoretical approaches as a factor influencing chemical reactivity, etc., and parametrization thereof has been proposed.
Source:
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077 (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1151
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.P04711.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/P04711.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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