A name in which the replacement of an atom or a group of a parent structure by another atom or group is indicated by affixes attached to or inserted into the name of the parent structure. There are two main types of replacement names.
Skeletal replacement name. A name in which the replacement of skeletal atoms and their associated hydrogen atoms is indicated by non-detachable prefixes. When carbon atoms are replaced by heteroatoms this method has been called 'a' nomenclature since the prefixes end in 'a'. Certain names in which the prefix 'thio-', 'seleno-' or 'telluro-' indicates replacement of a skeletal oxygen atom by a sulfur, selenium or tellurium atom, respectively, are also skeletal replacement names.
Functional replacement name. A name containing prefixes or infixes which indicate the replacement of an oxygen atom or hydroxy group of a characteristic group, functional parent or class name by other atoms or groups.
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook