The solid-state transformation
of non-graphitic carbon
by heat treatment combined with application of mechanical stress, resulting in a defined degree of graphitization
being obtained at a lower temperature and/or after a shorter time of heat treatment than in the absence of applied stress.
may also occur in volume elements of a carbon body in the process of heat treatment as a result of the action of internal residual or thermal stresses.
PAC, 1995, 67, 473
(Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations 1995))
on page 505
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook