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surface excess, n σ

For an interface, the adsorption or surface excess of a given component is defined as the difference between the amount of component actually present in the system, and that which would be present (in a reference system) if the bulk concentration in the adjoining phases were maintained up to a chosen geometrical dividing surface (Gibbs dividing surface). For a solid/liquid interface in which no component of the liquid phase penetrates into the solid, the surface excess (or adsorption) of component i is defined as:
n i σ = n i − V l c i l
where n i is the total amount of i in the system, V l is the volume of an arbitrarily chosen amount of bulk liquid (in the framework of the so-called algebraic method) and c i l is its bulk concentration in the liquid.
Source:
PAC, 1986, 58, 967 (Reporting data on adsorption from solution at the solid/solution interface (Recommendations 1986)) on page 969
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.S06171.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/S06171.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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