Energy levels localized in the surface region
of semiconductors, which do not bear any direct relation to the bulk energy distribution, but which can exchange electrons with the bulk. In such a case a space charge
arise even when
(the free charge density
) is zero, i.e.
is the space charge density
is the charge density
associated with the surface states.
PAC, 1986, 58, 437
(Interphases in systems of conducting phases (Recommendations 1985))
on page 443
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook