The change in Gibbs energy when an ion or molecule is transferred from a vacuum (or the gas phase) to a solvent. The main contributions to the solvation
energy come from:
- the cavitation energy of formation of the hole which preserves the dissolved species in the solvent;
- the orientation energy of partial orientation of the dipoles;
- the isotropic interaction energy of electrostatic and dispersion origin; and
- the anisotropic energy of specific interactions, e.g. hydrogen bonds, donor-acceptor interactions etc.
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook