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Carbon fibres type HM (high modulus) are carbon fibres with a value of Young's modulus (tensile modulus) larger than Math - text (nearly 30% of the Math - text elastic constant of a graphite single crystal).
Note:
The level of the tensile modulus of carbon fibres is controlled by the degree of preferred orientation of the layer planes in the direction parallel to the fibre axis. Math - note, the elastic constant of graphite single crystals in the direction of the layer planes, is Math - ei. In general, the ratio of tensile strength to tensile modulus is smaller than Math - ei for carbon fibres type HM (but the tensile strength is influenced by flaws in the fibres and may be improved in the future). Carbon fibres type UHM (ultra-high modulus) have moduli of elasticity in excess of Math - note, surpassing 50% of the theoretical Math - note number. Such high values of Young's modulus can be achieved most readily in mesophase pitch-based carbon fibres (MPP-based carbon fibres).
Source:
PAC, 1995, 67, 473 (Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)) on page 481
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A.Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2008-10-07; version: 2.0.2.
DOI of this term: https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00833.
Original PDF version (may be out of date): http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/C00833.pdf.
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