The displacement of photoelectron or Auger peak energies originating from changes
in electron binding energies as a consequence of differences in the chemical
environment of the atoms.
PAC, 1979, 51, 2243 (General aspects of trace analytical methods - IV. Recommendations for nomenclature,
standard procedures and reporting of experimental data for surface analysis techniques)
on page 2247
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications,
Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-)
created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.