Change in effective charge is a quantity obtained by comparison of the polar effect
of substituents on the free energies of rate or equilibrium processes with that on
a standard ionization
equilibrium. Provided the effective charges on the states in the standard equilibrium
are defined, then it is possible to measure effective charges for states in the reaction
or equilibrium under consideration.
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077
(Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994))
on page 1108
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook