An allotropic form of the element carbon consisting of layers of hexagonally arranged
carbon atoms in a planar condensed ring system graphene layers
The layers are stacked parallel to each other in a three-dimensional crystalline
long-range order. There are two allotropic forms with different stacking arrangements,
hexagonal and rhombohedral. The chemical bonds within the layers are covalent with
and with a C–C distance of
. The weak bonds between the layers are metallic with a strength comparable to van
der Waals bonding only.
The term graphite is also used often but incorrectly to describe graphite materials
, i.e. materials consisting of graphitic carbon
made from carbon materials by processing to temperatures greater than
, even though no perfect graphite structure is present.
PAC, 1995, 67, 473
(Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations
on page 491
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook