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hypervalency

The ability of an atom in a molecular entity to expand its valence shell beyond the limits of the Lewis octet rule. Hypervalent compounds are common for the second and subsequent row elements in groups 15–18 of the periodic table. A description of the hypervalent bonding implies a transfer of the electrons from the central (hypervalent) atom to the nonbonding molecular orbitals which it forms with (usually more electronegative) ligands. A typical example of the hypervalent bond is a linear three-centre, four-electron bond, e.g. that of Fap–P–Fap fragment of PF5.
Source:
PAC, 1999, 71, 1919 (Glossary of terms used in theoretical organic chemistry) on page 1946
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: doi:10.1351/goldbook.HT07054.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/HT07054.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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