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ion-selective electrode (ISE)

An electrochemical sensor, based on thin films or selective membranes as recognition elements, and an electrochemical half-cell equivalent to other half-cells of the zeroth (inert metal in a redox electrolyte), 1st, 2nd and 3rd kinds. These devices are distinct from systems that involve redox reactions (electrodes of zeroth, 1st, 2nd and 3rd kinds), although they often contain a 2nd kind electrode as the 'inner' or 'internal' reference electrode. The potential difference response has, as its principal component, the Gibbs energy change associated with permselective mass transfer (by ion-exchange, solvent extraction or some other mechanism) across a phase boundary. The ion-selective electrode must be used in conjunction with a reference electrode (i.e. 'outer' or 'external' reference electrode) to form a complete electrochemical cell. The measured potential differences (ion-selective electrode vs. outer reference electrode potentials) are linearly dependent on the logarithm of the activity of a given ion in solution. Comment: The term 'ion-specific electrode' is not recommended. The term 'specific' implies that the electrode does not respond to additional ions. Since no electrode is truly specific for one ion, the term 'ion-selective' is recommended as more appropriate. 'Selective ion-sensitive electrode' is a little-used term to describe an ion-selective electrode. 'Principal' or 'primary' ions are those which an electrode is designed to measure. It is never certain that the 'principal' ion is most sensitively measured, e.g. nitrate ion-selective electrodes.
PAC, 1994, 66, 2527 (Recommendations for nomenclature of ionselective electrodes (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 2531
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
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