The statement that those elementary reactions are the most favoured which exhibit
the fewest possible alterations in the positions of the atomic nuclei and in the electronic configuration
. The most frequently used mathematical formulation of the principle rests on a mechanical
model of a molecule in which the energy of structural deformation, when reactants
(r) turn into products (p), is assumed to be proportional to the sum of the squares
of the changes in the positions of the nuclei common to both reactants and products
is the force constant (in many applications set equal to unity). The equation coincides
with the relationship for the potential energy of small vibrations, hence it is valid
only at a very early stage of a reaction. This is one of the reasons why many reactions
violate the principle of least motion.
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook