Depending on whether the number of observations is even or odd, the median can be
estimated as follows:
The middle value of a series of observations, arranged in increasing or decreasing
The arithmetic mean of the two middle values of a series of observations, arranged
in increasing or decreasing order.
Comment: The use of the median when reporting results of chemical analysis is generally
not recommended, because its statistical efficiency is less than that of the mean.
In certain cases, however, especially when treating small sets of data, the median
may offer advantages because it is a so-called 'robust statistic
', i.e. it offers considerable resistance
to the effects of isolated outliers.
PAC, 1994, 66, 595
(Nomenclature for the presentation of results of chemical analysis (IUPAC Recommendations
on page 603
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook