NMR shift difference measurement of the isotope effect
on a fast (degenerate) equilibrium between two species which are equivalent except
for isotopic substitution. This can be used to distinguish a rapidly equilibrating
mixture with time-averaged symmetry from a single structure with higher symmetry.
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077
(Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994))
on page 1132
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook