The algebraic sum of the charges present at the surface of the particle divided by
the elementary charge
of the proton
. The symbol
is also used for charge number
of an ion.
PAC, 1994, 66, 891
(Quantities and units for electrophoresis in the clinical laboratory (IUPAC Recommendations
on page 895
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook