The quantized internal energy
of a molecule in its electronic ground or excited state
can be approximated with sufficient accuracy for analytical purposes by:
is the electronic,
the vibrational and
the rotational energy, respectively.
PAC, 1988, 60, 1449
(Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis - VII. Molecular
absorption spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible (UV/VIS) (Recommendations 1988))
on page 1452
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook