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reduced species

A term used to characterize the degree of reduction (or oxidation) in atoms, molecules and ions. An atom in a molecule or an ion which has a low oxidation state. An element or atom in a compound can be reduced by the reaction of an element or compound with hydrogen, while it can be oxidized by reaction with oxygen. A reduced species can be formed also through the gain of electrons (either at the negative electrode in a cell or through transfer from another atom, ion or group of atoms in a chemical reaction). For example, the carbon atom in CH4 and other hydrocarbons is in a reduced state, while the carbon in CO2 is in an oxidized state. Similarly the sulfur atom in H2S is in a reduced state while that in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is in an oxidized state.
PAC, 1990, 62, 2167 (Glossary of atmospheric chemistry terms (Recommendations 1990)) on page 2210
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
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