Multiple (or two) samples taken under comparable conditions. This selection may be
accomplished by taking units adjacent in time or space. Although the replicate samples
are expected to be identical, often the only thing replicated is the act of taking
the physical sample. A duplicate sample is a replicate sample consisting of two portions.
The umpire sample
is usually used to settle a dispute; the replicate sample is usually used to estimate
PAC, 1990, 62, 1193
(Nomenclature for sampling in analytical chemistry (Recommendations 1990))
on page 1203
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook