Ions which possess a chemical affinity for the surface in addition to the Coulomb
interaction, where chemical is a collective adjective, embracing all interactions
other than purely Coulombic. Examples are van der Waals or hydrophobic bonding, pi-electron
exchange and complex formation. Specifically adsorbing ions can adsorb on an initially
uncharged surface and hence provide it with a charge. The term specifically adsorbed
applies to the sorption of all other ions having an affinity to the surface in addition
to the purely Coulombic contribution.
PAC, 1991, 63, 895
(Nomenclature, symbols, definitions and measurements for electrified interfaces in
aqueous dispersions of solids (Recommendations 1991))
on page 899
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook