Goldbook title
IUPAC > Gold Book > alphabetical index > S > standard state
Gold G Icon
Indexes Download

standard state

State of a system chosen as standard for reference by convention. Three standard states are recognized: For a gas phase it is the (hypothetical) state of the pure substance in the gaseous phase at the standard pressurep = p °, assuming ideal behaviour. For a pure phase, or a mixture, or a solvent in the liquid or solid state it is the state of the pure substance in the liquid or solid phase at the standard pressurep = p °. For a solute in solution it is the (hypothetical) state of solute at the standard molality m °, standard pressurep ° or standard concentrationc ° and exhibiting infinitely dilute solution behaviour. For a pure substance the concept of standard state applies to the substance in a well defined state of aggregation at a well defined but arbitrarily chosen standard pressure.
Interactive Link Maps
First Level Second Level Third Level
Cite as:
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term:
Original PDF version: The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
Current PDF version | Version for print | History of this term