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The term refers to the relationship between the amounts of substances that react together in a particular chemical reaction, and the amounts of products that are formed. The general stoichiometric equation:
a A + b B + ... → ... + y Y + z Z
provides the information that a moles of A reacts with b moles of B to produce y moles of Y and z moles of Z. The stoichiometry of a reaction may be unknown, or may be very complex. For example, the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde yields mainly methane and carbon monoxide, but also a variety of minor products such as ethane, acetone and diacetyl. The stoichiometric equation:
is therefore only an approximate one. Even when the overall stoichiometry of a reaction is well defined, it may be time-dependent in that it varies during the course of a reaction. Thus if a reaction occurs by the mechanism A → X → Y , and X is formed in substantial amounts during the course of the process, the relationship between the amounts of A, X and Y will vary with time, and no one stoichiometric equation can represent the reaction at all times.
PAC, 1996, 68, 149 (A glossary of terms used in chemical kinetics, including reaction dynamics (IUPAC Recommendations 1996)) on page 187
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
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