Material in the experimental surface which is either not characteristic of the sample
or which would not be present if the sample had been prepared in an absolute vacuum
by methods not contacting other substances to the sample.
PAC, 1979, 51, 2243
(General aspects of trace analytical methods - IV. Recommendations for nomenclature,
standard procedures and reporting of experimental data for surface analysis techniques)
on page 2247
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook