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solubility parameter, δ

Parameter used in predicting the solubility of non-electrolytes (including polymers) in a given solvent.
For a substance B,
δ B = ( Δ vap E m , B V m , B ) 1/2
where Δ vap E m , B is the molar energy of vaporization at zero pressure and V m , B is the molar volume.
Notes:
  1. For a substance of low molecular weight, the value of the solubility parameter can be estimated most reliably from the enthalpy of vaporization and the molar volume.
  2. The solubility of a substance B can be related to the square of the difference between the solubility parameters for supercooled liquid B and solvent at a given temperature, with appropriate allowances for entropy of mixing. Thus, a value can be estimated from the solubility of the solid in a series of solvents of known solubility parameter. For a polymer, it is usually taken to be the value of the solubility parameter of the solvent producing the solution with maximum intrinsic viscosity or maximum swelling of a network of the polymer. See J.H. Hildebrand, R.L.Scott, The Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd ed., Reinhold Publishing (1950); Dover Publications (1964), Chap. VII, p.129; Chap. XXIII, for the original definition, theory, and extensive examples.
  3. The SI units are Pa 1/2 = J 1/2 m −3/2, but units used frequently are µPa 1/2 = ( J cm −3 ) 1/2 or ( cal cm −3 ) 1/2, where 1 ( J cm −3 ) 1/2 ≈ 2.045 ( cal cm −3 ) 1/2. The unit calorie is discouraged as obsolete.
Source:
PAC, 2008, 80, 233 (Glossary of terms related to solubility (IUPAC Recommendations 2008)) on page 264
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
DOI of this term: https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.ST07466.
Original PDF version: http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/ST07466.pdf. The PDF version is out of date and is provided for reference purposes only. For some entries, the PDF version may be unavailable.
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