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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Any technique in which the sample is bombarded with X-rays and photoelectrons produced by the sample are detected as a function of energy. ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) refers to the use of this technique to identify elements, their concentrations, and their chemical state within the sample.
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IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). XML on-line corrected version: (2006-) created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8.
Last update: 2014-02-24; version: 2.3.3.
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