A weak line in the same energy region as a normal X-ray line. Another name used for
weak features is non-diagram line. Recommendations as to the use of these two terms
have conflicted. Using the term diagram line
as defined here, non-diagram line may well be used for all lines with a different
origin. The majority of these lines originate form the dipole-allowed de-excitation
of multiply ionized or excited states, and are called multiple-ionization
satellites. A line where the initial state has two vacencies in the same shell, notably
the K-shell, is called a hypersatellite. Other mechanisms leading to weak spectral
features in X-ray emission are, e.g. resonance emission
, the radiative Auger effect
, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions and, in metals, plasmon excitation.
Atoms with open electron shells, i.e. transition metals, lanthanides and actinides,
show a splitting of certain X-ray lines due to the electron interaction involving
this open shell. Structures originating in all these ways as well as structures in
the valence band
of molecules and solid chemical compounds have in the past been given satellite designations.
PAC, 1991, 63, 735
(Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis - VIII.
Nomenclature system for X-ray spectroscopy (Recommendations 1991))
on page 739