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Acronyms and abbreviations

Acronym/AbbreviationIn entry
+Rπ-electron acceptor/donor group
3D-QSARcomparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)
3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationships)
Anucleotide bases
ACfrequency-domain fluorometry
ACGIHthreshold limit value (TLV)
ADMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
AMAM 0 sunlight
AM 0AM 0 sunlight
AM 1AM 1 sunlight
AMRattractive–mixed–repulsive (AMR) classification
ANNartificial neural networks
pattern recognition
AOMangular overlap model (AOM)
ATPcatabolism
yield, Y in biotechnology
BAPMoNair monitoring station in atmospheric chemistry
BBOoptical parametric oscillator
BDEbond-dissociation energy (BDE) in theoretical chemistry
BETmicroporous carbon
BOBorn–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation
BPbicycle-pedal (BP) mechanism
BSEback scattered electrons (BSEs) in in situ microanalysis
BSEsback scatter coefficient in in situ microanalysis
BSSRutherford backscattering (RBS)
Cnucleotide bases
CADDcomputer-assisted drug design (CADD)
CAMDcomputer-assisted molecular design (CAMD)
CAMMcomputer-assisted molecular modeling (CAMM)
CARSnon-linear optical techniques
CASPT2complete active space self-consistent field second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2)
CASSCFcomplete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF)
complete active space self-consistent field second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2)
CCcoupled cluster (CC) method
CCDcharge-transfer device in radiation detection
CCNcondensation nuclei (CN) in atmospheric chemistry
CCSDspin-flip method
CDchiroptic/chiroptical
circular dichroism (CD)
dichroism
CEIphoton flux, q p, Φ p
CEMphotomultiplier tube
CIcomplete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF)
configuration interaction (CI)
natural orbital
CIDcharge-transfer device in radiation detection
multiconfiguration SCF method
CIDEPchemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP)
CIDEP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarization)
CIDNPCIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization)
radical pair (geminate pair)
stimulated emission
CIEinfrared
ultraviolet
CIEELchemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL)
CIEEL (Chemically Initiated Electron Exchange Luminescence)
CIPCIP priority
priority
Re, Si
CIPMmillimetre of mercury
CISmulticonfiguration SCF method
CISDmulticonfiguration SCF method
CMPchemical measurement process (CMP)
CNcondensation nuclei (CN) in atmospheric chemistry
CPLchiroptic/chiroptical
CRUconstitutional repeating unit (CRU) in polymers
CTcharge-transfer (CT) state
charge-transfer (CT) transition
CT
CTTScharge transfer transition to solvent (CTTS)
CVDdiamond by CVD
gas-phase-grown carbon fibres
pyrolytic carbon
synthetic graphite
CVTSTcanonical variational transition-state theory (CVTST)
CWargon ion laser
continuous wave (CW) laser
CW
dye laser
Fourier-transform spectroscopy
ion laser
single-photon timing
solid state lasers
time-correlated single photon counting
tunable laser in spectrochemical analysis
CoMFAcomparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)
DASDAS
global analysis
DCfrequency-domain fluorometry
DCCAdrying control chemical additive
DEdelocalization energy (DE)
DEDMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
DFDMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
DFGparametric processes
DFTtime-dependent density functional theory
DLCdiamond-like carbon films
DNdonor number (DN)
DNAblotting in biotechnology
chromosome
clone
complementary DNA (cDNA)
deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)
DNA probe
exon
expression in biotechnology
gene library
gene manipulation
genome
histones
hybridization
DRPdynamic reaction path (DRP)
DSCdifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
DTAdifferential thermal analysis (DTA)
DZbasis set
ECLelectrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL)
EESexcitation-emission spectrum
EGAevolved gas analysis (EGA)
EGDevolved gas detection (EGD)
EHMOextended Hückel MO method (EHMO)
ELISAimmunoassay
EPMAelectron probe microanalysis (EPMA)
EPRcoupling constant (spin-spin), J
electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
magnetic circular dichroism
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
spin density
EPXMAelectron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA)
ESCAelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA)
photoelectron spectroscopy (PES)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
ESRchemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP)
CIDEP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarization)
electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
hyperfine coupling
spin density
spin label
EXAFSextended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)
FABfast-atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy
FDMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
FETphototransistor
FRETfluorescence resonance energy transfer
Förster-resonance-energy transfer FRET
FRET
FT-ICRFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer
FT-MSFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer
FTIRFourier-transform spectroscopy
FTSmultiplex spectrometer
FVPflash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)
FWHMFWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum)
half-width of a band
line width
resolution in mass spectroscopy
Gnucleotide bases
GCgas chromatography (GC)
GPCexclusion chromatography
Himmunoglobulin (Ig)
HBAprotophilic (solvent)
HETPplate height, H eff in chromatography
HMcarbon fibres type HM
pitch-based carbon fibres
HMOatom-atom polarizability
atom-bond polarizability
extended Hückel MO method (EHMO)
Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) theory
HOMOfrontier orbitals
homo
low-spin state
subjacent orbital
HOPGhighly oriented pyrolytic graphite
polycrystalline graphite
pyrolytic graphite
HPLCliquid chromatography (LC)
HRELShigh resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HRELS)
HTcarbon fibres type HT
carbon fibres type IM
hula-twist (HT) mechanism
HWHMHWHM (Half Width at Half Maximum)
line width
ICion-exchange chromatography
ICRFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer
ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer
ICTICT
ICT emission
intramolecular charge transfer, (ICT)
ICVTSTimproved canonical variational transition-state theory (ICVTST)
IGLOindividual gauge for localized orbitals (IGLO)
IHPinner Helmholtz plane (IHP)
IMcarbon fibres type IM
IOPinorganic–organic polymer
IPMAion probe microanalysis (IPMA)
IPNinterpenetrating polymer network
semi-interpenetrating polymer network
IRdegree of crystallinity of a polymer
magnetic circular dichroism
photochemistry
ISCISC
ISEion-selective electrode (ISE)
ISOmillimetre of mercury
substance content, n / m
substance flow rate
substance fraction, x
transport number, t
ISSion scattering spectrometry (ISS)
IUPACmercaptans
Igimmunoglobulin (Ig)
JECFAacceptable daily intake (ADI)
Limmunoglobulin (Ig)
LADSglobal analysis
LADS
LAMESlaser micro emission spectroscopy (LAMES)
LAMMSlaser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS)
LASglobal analysis
LAS
LBLangmuir–Blodgett (LB) membrane
LClethal concentration
liquid chromatography (LC)
LCAOHückel molecular orbital (HMO) theory
LCSTmiscibility gap
upper critical solution temperature
LDdichroism
lethal dose
linear dichroism (LD)
LEDLED
light-emitting diode (LED)
LEEDlow energy electron diffraction (LEED)
LEPLondon–Eyring–Polanyi (LEP) method
LEPSLondon–Eyring–Polanyi–Sato (LEPS) method
LIDARLIDAR in atmospheric chemistry
LLCTligand to ligand charge transfer (LLCT) transition
LMcarbon fibres type LM
pitch-based carbon fibres
LMCTligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition
LMOlocalized molecular orbitals (LMO)
LOAELlowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL)
lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL)
LOELlowest-observed-effect-level (LOEL)
LRMAlaser Raman microanalysis (LRMA)
LUMOfrontier orbitals
low-spin state
Mhelicity
MAbsmonoclonal antibodies (MAbs)
MCMonte Carlo (MC), method of
MCDmagnetic circular dichroism
MCPLCdisruptor
rigid chain
spacer
MCSCFmulticonfiguration SCF method
MERPminimum-energy reaction path
photochemical reaction path
MLCTmetal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition
MLCT
MLRregresssion analysis
MMquantum mechanics/molecular mechanics
MMCTmetal to metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition
MOantibonding molecular orbital
aromaticity
atomic charge
bonding molecular orbital
extended Hückel MO method (EHMO)
hydrogen bond in theoretical organic chemistry
localized molecular orbitals (LMO)
nonbonding molecular orbital
MOScharge-transfer device in radiation detection
MP2spin-flip method
MP4coupled cluster (CC) method
MPAMulliken population analysis (MPA)
MPLmaximum permissible level (MPL)
MPPmesophase pitch-based carbon fibres
pitch-based carbon fibres
rayon-based carbon fibres
MRCImultireference configuration interaction
MRImagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MSDSmaterial safety data sheet (MSDS)
MTCmaximum tolerable concentration (MTC)
MTDmaximum tolerable dose (MTD)
maximum tolerated dose (MTD)
MTELmaximum tolerable exposure level (MTEL)
NAOnatural atomic orbital (NAO)
NBOnatural bond orbital (NBO)
NEXAFSextended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)
NHOnatural hybrid orbital (NHO)
NHOMOsubjacent orbital
NIHNIH shift
NMRaromatic
chemical shift, δ in NMR
CIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization)
coupling constant (spin-spin), J
individual gauge for localized orbitals (IGLO)
magic angle
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
magnetization transfer
stereochemical non-rigidity
structure-based design in drug design
NOnatural orbital
NOAELno observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)
NOELno-observed-effect-level (NOEL)
NPAnatural population analysis (NPA)
OBFhula-twist (HT) mechanism
one-bond-flip
ODMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
OHPouter Helmholtz plane (OHP)
OIPorganic–inorganic polymer
OLEDlight-emitting diode (LED)
OLED
OMAoptical multi-channel analyser
OPAoptical parametric amplification
parametric processes
OPGparametric processes
OPOoptical parametric oscillator
parametric processes
ORDchiroptic/chiroptical
OSHAmaterial safety data sheet (MSDS)
Phelicity
PAproton affinity
PALphotoaffinity labelling
PANPAN-based carbon fibres
rayon-based carbon fibres
PCplanar chromatography
PCApattern recognition
PCRpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
PDCpolymer-derived ceramic
PDMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
PESenergy hypersurface (synonymous with potential energy surface, PES)
photoelectron spectroscopy (PES)
PICTintramolecular charge transfer, (ICT)
planar intramolecular charge transfer
PINphotodiode
PIN semiconductor detector
PIXEcharacteristic X-ray emission
PLEDlight-emitting diode (LED)
PLED
PLOTporous-layer open-tabular (PLOT) column in chromatography
support-coated open-tubular (SCOT) column in chromatography
PLSpartial least squares (PLS)
pattern recognition
regresssion analysis
PPPPariser–Parr–Pople (PPP) method
PTFEbomb-digestion in spectrochemical analysis
PVCinterfering substance in electroanalytical chemistry
PVDpyrolytic carbon
QC/MMquantum mechanics/molecular mechanics
QCTquasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method
QMquantum mechanics/molecular mechanics
QM/MMquantum mechanics/molecular mechanics
QSARcorrelation analysis
quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) in drug design
quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR)
RR, S
R*R*, S*
RBSRutherford backscattering (RBS)
REELShigh resolution energy loss spectroscopy (HRELS)
reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS)
RHEEDreflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)
RHFinstability of Hartree–Fock solution
RIAimmunoassay
RIMreaction injection moulding
reactive blending
RNAblotting in biotechnology
complementary DNA (cDNA)
hybridization
RP-HPLClipophilicity
RRIMreinforced reaction injection moulding
RRKRice–Ramsperger–Kassel (RRK) theory
Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory
RRKMRice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory
RSracemate
RYDMRODMR (Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance)
RfDreference dose (RfD)
Rpplanar chirality
SR, S
S*R*, S*
SAEDtransmission high energy electron diffraction (THEED)
SARstructure–activity relationship (SAR)
SCFbasis set
complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF)
multireference configuration interaction
spin-flip method
SCOTsupport-coated open-tubular (SCOT) column in chromatography
SCPsingle cell protein (SCP)
SECsize-exclusion chromatography (SEC)
SEMscanning electron microscopy (SEM)
SETsingle-electron transfer mechanism (SET)
SFspin-flip method
SFCsupercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)
SFGparametric processes
SGPLCspacer
SHGparametric processes
SIconversion cross-section
photon irradiance, E p
spectral fluence rate, E λ , o
spectral radiant energy, Q λ
system of units of measurement
SIMCApattern recognition
SIMSion microscopy
SIPNsemi-interpenetrating polymer network
SIXsolvent ion exchange (SIX)
SLUMOsubjacent orbital
SMILESSMILES
SOMOSOMO
SPCquantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) in drug design
structure-property correlations (SPC)
SRracemate
STELthreshold limit value (TLV)
STEMscanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
STPSTP
Spplanar chirality
Tnucleotide bases
TACsingle-photon timing
time-correlated single photon counting
TD-DFTtime-dependent density functional theory
TEELStransmission electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEELS)
TEMelectron microscopy
scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
TGthermogravimetry (TG)
THEEDtransmission high energy electron diffraction (THEED)
TICTintramolecular charge transfer, (ICT)
TICT emission
TICT state
twisted intramolecular charge transfer
TLClipophilicity
planar chromatography
TLVthreshold limit value (TLV)
TMSchemical shift, δ in NMR
TRMCtime-resolved microwave conductivity
TSEPtransient-stimulated emission pumping
TSTgeneralized transition-state theory
TTETtriplet-triplet energy transfer
TWAthreshold limit value (TLV)
Unucleotide bases
UCSTmiscibility gap
upper critical solution temperature
UHFinstability of Hartree–Fock solution
UHMcarbon fibres type HM
carbon fibres type UHM
UPSphotoelectron spectroscopy (PES)
UV photoelectron spectroscopy
UVamalgam lamp
excimer lamp
excimer laser
frequency-domain fluorometry
photochemistry
photodegradation
photoelectron spectroscopy (PES)
ultraviolet
UV dose
UV photoelectron spectroscopy
UV stabilizer
UV-Alow-pressure mercury lamp (arc)
ultraviolet
Wood lamp
UV-Bultraviolet
UV-Cultraviolet
UV–VISlow temperature UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy
VUVultraviolet
VUV
W/O/Wlipid film
WCOTwall-coated open-tubular (WCOT) column in chromatography
WMOair monitoring station in atmospheric chemistry
XPSphotoelectron spectroscopy (PES)
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
YAGneodymium laser
optical parametric oscillator
ZDOzero differential overlap (ZDO) approximation
c.m.c.critical micelle concentration
cDNAcomplementary DNA (cDNA)
cmccritical micelle concentration
emfelectric potential difference, Δ V of a galvanic cell
membrane emf
evbioavailabilty in pharmacokinetics
ivbioavailabilty in pharmacokinetics
mRNAenzyme repression
expression in biotechnology
gene (cistron)
genetic code
p.d.potential-determining (p.d.) ions
p.z.c.point of zero charge (p.z.c.)
potential at the point of zero charge (p.z.c.)
peprimary electrons (pe) in in situ microanalysis
pfhsprecipitation from homogeneous solution (pfhs) in analysis
rr, s
radiant intensityemission anisotropy
sr, s
µVTSTmicrocanonical variational transition-state theory (µVTST)
−Rπ-electron acceptor/donor group