Number of covalent bonds that a monomer molecule or monomeric unit in a macromolecule or oligomer molecule can form with other reactants.
- There are no monofunctional monomers.
- If \(f = 2\), a @L03546@ macromolecule or a @M03662@ can be formed.
- If \(f > 2\), a branch point can be formed leading to a branched macromolecule, a @NT07562@ or a micronetwork.
- Ethene and ethylene glycol are examples of difunctional monomers, glycerol is an example of a trifunctional @M04017@, and divinylbenzene and pentaerythritol are examples of tetrafunctional monomers.
PAC, 2007, 79, 1801. 'Definitions of terms relating to the structure and processing of sols, gels, networks, and inorganic-organic hybrid materials (IUPAC Recommendations 2007)' on page 1805 (https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200779101801)