X-ray levels have various degrees of ionization
-- single, double or higher -- and may in some cases also be electrically neutral.
An excitation level (exciton
) is an electrically neutral X-ray level
with an expelled electron bound in the field of a core electron vacancy.
PAC, 1991, 63, 735
(Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis - VIII.
Nomenclature system for X-ray spectroscopy (Recommendations 1991))
on page 738
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook