Motions of the surface of a liquid are coupled with those of the subsurface fluid
or fluids, so that movements of the liquid normally produce stresses in the surface
and vice versa. The movement of the surface and of the entrained fluid(s) caused by
surface tension gradients is called the Marangoni effect.
PAC, 1979, 51, 1213
(Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units. Appendix
II: Definitions, terminology and symbols in colloid and surface chemistry. Part 1.13.
Selected definitions, terminology and symbols for rheological properties)
on page 1218
IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by
A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997).
XML on-line corrected version: http://goldbook.iupac.org (2006-) created by M. Nic,
J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook