by heat treatment in the presence of certain metals or minerals.
gives a fixed degree of
at lower temperature and/or for a shorter heat treatment time than in the absence of the catalytic additives (or a higher degree of
at fixed heat treatment conditions). Often it involves
particles so that non-graphitizing carbons can be graphitized by this procedure.
(Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations 1995))
on page 484