The quantity used to characterize the scattered intensity at the
is the intensity of the incident radiation,
is the total intensity of scattered radiation observed at an angle
and a distance
from the point of scattering
is the scattering
volume. The factor
takes account of polarization
phenomena. It depends on the type of radiation employed.
For light scattering, dependent on the polarization of the incident beam,
for vertically polarized light,
for horizontally polarized light and
for unpolarized light.
For small-angle X-ray scattering,