Originally, compounds such as aldoses and ketoses having the stoichiometric formula Cn(H2O)n, hence 'hydrates of carbon'. The generic term carbohydrate includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides as well as substances derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group (alditols), by oxidation of one or more terminal groups to carboxylic acids, or by replacement of one or more hydroxy group(s) by a hydrogen atom, an amino group, thiol group or similar groups. It also includes derivatives of these compounds.
PAC, 1995, 67, 1307. 'Glossary of class names of organic compounds and reactivity intermediates based on structure (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)' on page 1325 (