enzymes or cells which are of relatively large size may be entrapped in a maze of polymeric molecules (a gel). This procedure is called immobilization by inclusion. When the biocatalyst is enclosed inside a semipermeable membrane, usually approximately spherical, the method is known as encapsulation. In the process of reticulation the primary biocatalyst particles (individual enzyme molecules, cofactors or individual cells) are covalently attached to each other by organic chains, into a three-dimensional network. The term grafting is also used in this context. attachment to the support by adsorption forces is called immobilization by adsorption.
PAC, 1991, 63, 1227. 'Manual on catalyst characterization (Recommendations 1991)' on page 1230 (https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199163091227)