A gas-filled X-ray detector in which gas amplification reaches saturation and proportionality no longer exists. The output signal does not depend on the incident energy. The time taken for the counter to recover from the saturation is called dead time.
PAC, 1995, 67, 1745. 'Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis-XI. Detection of radiation (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)' on page 1754 (https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199567101745)