The number of @[email protected], \(F\), that a system containing \(C\) components can have when \(P\) phases are in equilibrium, is given as: \[F=C- P+2\]
Source: PAC, 1994, 66, 577. (Definitions of terms relating to phase transitions of the solid state (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 588 [Terms] [Paper]
Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). Online version (2019-) created by S. J. Chalk. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.