A residue from @P04961@ of organic material or tar distillation which is solid at room temperature, consisting of a complex mixture of numerous, essentially aromatic @H02889@ and @H02798@. It exhibits a broad softening range instead of a defined @M03821@ temperature. When cooled from the melt, pitches solidify without @C01434@.
The ratio of aromatic to aliphatic hydrogen depends mainly on the source of the starting material. The hydrogen @A00442@ (ratio of aromatic to total hydrogen atoms) varies between 0.3 and 0.9. The aliphatic hydrogen in pitch is largely associated with alkyl side chains substituted on aromatic rings. The content of @H02798@ in pitches varies depending on their origins. Also, the softening temperature can vary in a broad range between about \(320\) and \(570\ \text{K}\) depending on the @M04000@ (@R05271@) and composition of the constituents.
PAC, 1995, 67, 473. (Recommended terminology for the description of carbon as a solid (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)) on page 500 [Terms] [Paper]