Error arising from breakdown in the assumption that the @L03584@ potential remains constant when solution X is substituted for solution S in the operational cell.
Source: PAC, 1985, 57, 531. (Definition of pH scales, standard reference values, measurement of pH and related terminology (Recommendations 1984)) on page 541 [Terms] [Paper]
Cite as: IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). Online version (2019-) created by S. J. Chalk. ISBN 0-9678550-9-8. https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.