## Wikipedia - Electron density (en) Wikipedia - Kerapatan elektron (id) Wikipedia - كثافة إلكترونية (ar) spin density

https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05864
The unpaired @[email protected] at a position of interest, usually at carbon, in a @[email protected] It is often measured experimentally by electron @[email protected] @[email protected] [EPR, ESR (electron spin @[email protected])] @[email protected] through @[email protected] constants of the atom or an attached hydrogen.