The change in Gibbs energy when an ion or molecule is transferred from a vacuum (or the gas phase) to a solvent. The main contributions to the @[email protected] energy come from:
- the cavitation energy of formation of the hole which preserves the dissolved species in the solvent;
- the orientation energy of partial orientation of the dipoles;
- the @[email protected] interaction energy of electrostatic and dispersion origin; and
- the anisotropic energy of specific interactions, e.g. hydrogen bonds, donor-acceptor interactions etc.