## Wikipedia - Banda di valenza (it) Wikipedia - نطاق التكافؤ (ar) valence band

https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06589
Highest energy continuum of energy levels in a solid that is fully occupied by electrons at $$0\ \text{K}$$.
Notes:
1. The @V06588@ band is lower in energy than the @C01244@ and is generally completely full in semiconductors. When heated, electrons from the @V06588@ band jump out of the band across the band gap and into the @C01244@, making the material conductive. The @F02341@ separates the @V06588@ band from the @C01244@.
2. In metals the @V06588@ band is the @C01244@.
3. Sample characterized by a (unique) sample axis Z with all directions perpendicular to Z being equivalent. In other words, the sample properties are invariant to rotation around Z. Uniaxiality exists in many anisotropic samples and simplifies the interpretation of their spectra considerably.
Source:
PAC, 2007, 79, 293. (Glossary of terms used in photochemistry, 3rd edition (IUPAC Recommendations 2006)) on page 438 [Terms] [Paper]