## Wikipedia - Banda di valenza (it) Wikipedia - نطاق التكافؤ (ar) valence band

https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06589
Highest energy continuum of energy levels in a solid that is fully occupied by electrons at $$0\ \text{K}$$.
Notes:
1. The @[email protected] band is lower in energy than the @[email protected] and is generally completely full in semiconductors. When heated, electrons from the @[email protected] band jump out of the band across the band gap and into the @[email protected], making the material conductive. The @[email protected] separates the @[email protected] band from the @[email protected]
2. In metals the @[email protected] band is the @[email protected]
3. Sample characterized by a (unique) sample axis Z with all directions perpendicular to Z being equivalent. In other words, the sample properties are invariant to rotation around Z. Uniaxiality exists in many anisotropic samples and simplifies the interpretation of their spectra considerably.
Source:
PAC, 2007, 79, 293. (Glossary of terms used in photochemistry, 3rd edition (IUPAC Recommendations 2006)) on page 438 [Terms] [Paper]