An index of the @[email protected] of a solvent based on the frequency of the longest @[email protected] electronic absorption maximum of 1-ethyl-4-methoxycarbonylpyridinium iodide in the solvent. The Z-value is defined by: \[Z = \frac{2.859\,\times\,10^{4}}{\lambda}\] where \(Z\) is in \(\text{kcal mol}^{-1}\) and \(\lambda \) is in \(\text{nm}\).
See also:
Dimroth–Reichardt ET parameter
Grunwald–Winstein equation
PAC, 1994, 66, 1077. (Glossary of terms used in physical organic chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)) on page 1176 [Terms] [Paper]