## Wikipedia - Equazione di Grunwald-Winstein (it) Grunwald–Winstein equation

https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02710
The linear @[email protected] relation: $\log _{10}(\frac{k_{\text{s}}}{k_{0}}) = m\ Y$ expressing the dependence of the rate of @[email protected] of a substrate on @[email protected] of the solvent. The @[email protected] $$k_{0}$$ applies to the reference solvent (ethanol–water, 80:20, v/v) and $$k_{\text{s}}$$ to the solvent s, both at $$25\ ^{\,\unicode{x26ac}}\text{C}$$. The parameter $$m$$ is characteristic of the substrate and is assigned the value unity for tert-butyl chloride. The value $$Y$$ is intended to be a quantitative measure of the @[email protected] of the solvents. The equation was later extended to the form: $\log _{10}(\frac{k_{\text{s}}}{k_{0}}) = m\ Y+l\ N$ where $$N$$ is the @[email protected] of the solvent and $$l$$ its susceptibility parameter. The equation has also been applied to reactions other than @[email protected]