Also contains definitions of: anchimeric assistance, synartetic acceleration
The direct interaction of the reaction centre (usually, but not necessarily, an incipient @[email protected]) with a lone pair of electrons of an atom or with the electrons of a σ- or π-bond contained within the parent molecule but not conjugated with the reaction centre. A distinction is sometimes made between n-, σ- and π-participation. A rate increase due to neighbouring group participation is known as 'anchimeric assistance'. 'Synartetic acceleration' is the special case of anchimeric assistance ascribed to participation by electrons binding a substituent to a carbon atom in a β-position relative to the @[email protected] attached to the α-carbon atom. According to the underlying model, these electrons then provide a three-centre bond (or '@[email protected]') 'fastening together' (as the word 'synartetic' is intended to suggest) the α- and β-carbon atoms between which the charge is divided in the intermediate @[email protected] formed (and in the @[email protected] preceding its formation). The term synartetic acceleration is not widely used.